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Primitive token mint

Get started with the simple things as a basis to learn more.


This is a beginner recipe intended for novice Substrate developers looking to explore ways to create tokens in Substrate. This approach is not recommended best practice. Use this guide to learn how to improve upon your runtime logic's capabilities and code quality. See the Examples section for a practical implementations of this guide.


Create a simple token mint pallet.

Use cases#

  • Give any account the ability to create a token supply.
  • Create a currency that's native to your application.


This guide will step you through an effective way to mint a token by leveraging the primitive capabilities that StorageMap gives us. To achieve this, this "primitive" approach uses the blake2_128_concat hasher to map balances to account IDs, similar to how the Balances pallet makes use of it to keep track of account balances in storage.


1. Setup your pallet's Config trait#

Using the Node Template as a starting point, specify the types your pallet depends on as well as the Events it will emit:

// The configuration trait
pub trait Config: system::Config {
type Event: From<Event<Self>> + Into<<Self as frame_system::Config>::Event>;
type Balance: Member + Parameter + AtLeast32BitUnsigned + Default + Copy;
/* --snip-- */
pub enum Event<T: Config> {
Transferred(T::AccountId, T::AccountId, T::Balance),

2. Declare your storage item StorageMap#

This pallet only keeps track of a balance-to-account mapping. Call it BalanceToAccount:

/* --snip-- */
#[pallet::getter(fn get_balance)]
pub(super) type BalanceToAccount<T: Config> = StorageMap<
/* --snip-- */

3. Create your pallet’s functions#

We can now bring our attention to creating the intended capabilities of our pallet by creating the following functions:

(i) mint(): to issue a token supply from any origin.

/* --snip-- */
#[pallet::weight(10_000 + T::DbWeight::get().writes(1))]
pub fn mint(
origin: OriginFor<T>,
#[pallet::compact] amount: T::Balance
) -> DispatchResultWithPostInfo {
let sender = ensure_signed(origin)?;
// Update storage.
<BalanceToAccount<T>>::insert(&sender, amount);
// Emit an event.
// Return a successful DispatchResultWithPostInfo.
/* --snip-- */

(ii) transfer(): to allow the minting account to transfer a given balance to another account.

Define transfer variables#

Start with writing out the variables, using get_balance to access the StorageMap of balances previously declared in storage:

pub fn transfer(
origin: OriginFor<T>,
to: T::AccountId,
#[pallet::compact] amount: T::Balance,
) -> DispatchResultWithPostInfo {
let sender = ensure_signed(origin)?;
let sender_balance = Self::get_balance(&sender);
let receiver_balance = Self::get_balance(&to);
/* --snip-- */

Verify and add error handling#

When performing balance updates, use checked_sub and checked_add to handle potential errors with overflow:

/* --snip-- */
// Calculate new balances.
let updated_from_balance = sender_balance.checked_sub(value).ok_or(<Error<T>>::InsufficientFunds)?;
let updated_to_balance = receiver_balance.checked_add(value).expect("Entire supply fits in u64, qed");
/* --snip-- */

Write to storage#

Once the new balances are calculated, write their values to storage and deposit the event to the current block:

// Write new balances to storage.
<Balances<T>>::insert(&sender, updated_from_balance);
<Balances<T>>::insert(&to, updated_to_balance);
Self::deposit_event(RawEvent::Transfer(sender, to, value));
/* --snip-- */

If checked_sub() returns None, the operation caused an overflow and throws an error.

4. Include your pallet in your runtime#

Refer to this guide if you’re not yet familiar with this procedure.

Further learning 💡

  • Safety. The mint function takes in an amount to mint which is not good practice because it implies that users have unlimited access to writing to storage. Safer approaches include: using configuring GenesisConfig or fixing a predetermined maximum value in runtime.
  • Weights. All the weights were set to 10_000 in the above code snippets. Learn more about weight configuration in this basic guide on weights.
  • Origins. One assumption this guide makes is that the origin will always be the sudo user. Origins are a powerful capability in Substrate. Learn more on how to customize an origin in this guide.


Related material#

How-to guides#

Rust docs#

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