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Configure a runtime constant

The basics for defining a constant in your runtime.


Define a runtime constant value that becomes reset on on_finalize.

Use cases#

Use a constant to keep track of the amount of times a function is called during a single block cycle.


Declaring a constant value in a runtime is a useful tool to either define fixed values or define values that change dynamically according to some factor. This guide steps through the process of creating pallet constants that are used to reset a u32 value in storage. This value, we'll call SingleValue, can also be modified using a method called add_value.

The purpose of this guide is to demonstrate the utiltiy of configuring constants by hardcoding them as well as making them more dynamic.


1. Define the constants in your pallet#

  • MaxAddend will be the value displayed in metadata.
  • ClearFrequency keeps track of the block numbers and will be used to reset SingleValue:
pub trait Config: frame_system::Config {
type Event: From<Event<Self>> + IsType<<Self as frame_system::Config>::Event>;
#[pallet::constant] // put the constant in metadata
/// Maximum amount added per invocation.
type MaxAddend: Get<u32>;
/// Frequency with which the stored value is deleted.
type ClearFrequency: Get<Self::BlockNumber>;

2. Declare your storage items and events#

Using the storage attribute macro, declare SingleValue which will be the value that gets modified every block cycle.

#[pallet::getter(fn single_value)]
pub(super) type SingleValue<T: Config> = StorageValue<_, u32, ValueQuery>;

Define your pallet's events:

#[pallet::generate_deposit(pub(super) fn deposit_event)]
pub enum Event<T: Config> {
/// The value has ben added to. The parameters are
/// (initial amount, amount added, final amount).
Added(u32, u32, u32),
/// The value has been cleared. The parameter is the value before clearing.

Add an error that handles operation overflow:

pub enum Error<T> {
/// An operation would lead to an overflow.

3. Configure on_finalize#

SingleValue is set to 0 every ClearFrequency number of blocks in the on_finalize function that runs at the end of block execution. Specify this logic under the #[pallet::hooks] attribute:

impl<T: Config> Hooks<BlockNumberFor<T>> for Pallet<T> {
fn on_finalize(n: T::BlockNumber) {
if (n % T::ClearFrequency::get()).is_zero() {
let current_value = <SingleValue<T>>::get();

4. Create a method that allows users to specify the value#

The add_value method increases SingleValue so long as each call adds to less than the MaxAddend value.

For this method, make sure to:

  • Include checks.
  • Keep track of the previous value.
  • Check for overflow.
  • Update SingleValue.
// Extrinsics callable from outside the runtime.
impl<T: Config> Pallet<T> {
fn add_value(
origin: OriginFor<T>,
val_to_add: u32
) -> DispatchResultWithPostInfo {
let _ = ensure_signed(origin)?;
ensure!(val_to_add <= T::MaxAddend::get(), "value must be <= maximum add amount constant");
// previous value got
let c_val = SingleValue::<T>::get();
// checks for overflow when new value added
let result = c_val.checked_add(val_to_add).ok_or(Error::<T>::Overflow)?;
Self::deposit_event(Event::Added(c_val, val_to_add, result));

5. Supply the constant value for runtime#

In runtime/src/, declare the values for your pallet's runtime implementation of MaxAddend and ClearFrequency:

parameter_types! {
pub const MaxAddend: u32 = 1738;
pub const ClearFrequency: u32 = 10;
impl constant_config::Config for Runtime {
type Event = Event;
type MaxAddend = MaxAddend;
type ClearFrequency = ClearFrequency;




Rust docs#

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