Lists: Maps vs Linked Maps


Substrate does not natively support a list type since it may encourage dangerous habits. Unless explicitly guarded against, a list will add unbounded O(n) complexity to an operation that will only charge O(1) fees (Big O notation refresher). This opens an economic attack vector on your chain.

Emulate a list with a mapping and a counter like so:

use support::{StorageValue, StorageMap};

decl_storage! {
    trait Store for Module<T: Trait> as Example {
        TheList get(fn the_list): map u32 => T::AccountId;
        TheCounter get(fn the_counter): u32;

This code allows us to store a list of participants in the runtime represented by AccountIds. Of course, this implementation leaves many unanswered questions such as

  • How to add and remove elements?
  • How to maintain order under mutating operations?
  • How to verify that an element exists before removing/mutating it?

This recipe answers those questions with snippets from relevant code samples:

Note: it is important to properly handle overflow/underflow and verify other relevant conditions for safety

Adding/Removing Elements in an Unbounded List

If the size of the list is not relevant, the implementation is straightforward. To add an AccountId, increment the the_counter and insert an AccountId at that index:

fn add_member(origin) -> Result {
    let who = ensure_signed(origin)?;

    let new_count = <TheCounter<T>>::get() + 1;
    // insert new member at next highest index
    <TheList<T>>::insert(new_count, who.clone());
    // increment counter



To remove an AccountId, call the remove method for the StorageMap type at the relevant index. In this case, it isn't necessary to update the indices of other proposals; order is not relevant.

fn remove_member_unbounded(origin, index: u32) -> Result {
    let who = ensure_signed(origin)?;

    // verify existence
    ensure!(<TheList<T>>::exists(index), "an element doesn't exist at this index");
    // for event emission
    let removed_member = <TheList<T>>::get(index);
    // remove member at provided index



Because the code doesn't update the indices of other AccountIds in the map, it is necessary to verify an AccountId's existence before removing it, mutating it, or performing any other operation.

Swap and Pop for Ordered Lists

To preserve storage so that the list doesn't continue growing even after removing elements, invoke the swap and pop algorithm:

  1. swap the element to be removed with the element at the head of the list (the element with the highest index in the map)
  2. remove the element recently placed at the highest index
  3. decrement the TheCount value.

Use the swap and pop algorithm to remove elements from the list.

fn remove_member_bounded(origin, index: u32) -> Result {
    let _ = ensure_signed(origin)?;

    ensure!(<TheList<T>>::exists(index), "an element doesn't exist at this index");

    let largest_index = <TheCounter>::get();
    let member_to_remove = <TheList<T>>::take(index);
    // swap
    if index != largest_index {
        let temp = <TheList<T>>::take(largest_index);
        <TheList<T>>::insert(index, temp);
        <TheList<T>>::insert(largest_index, member_to_remove.clone());
    // pop
    <TheCounter>::mutate(|count| *count - 1);



Linked Map

To trade performance for relatively simple code, use the linked_map data structure. By implementing StorageLinkedMap in addition to StorageMap, linked_map provides a method head which yields the head of the list, thereby making it unnecessary to also store the LargestIndex (the counters). The enumerate method also returns an Iterator ordered according to when (key, value) pairs were inserted into the map.

To use linked_map, import EnumerableStorageMap. Here is the new declaration in the decl_storage block:

use support::{StorageMap, EnumerableStorageMap}; // no StorageValue necessary

decl_storage! {
    trait Store for Module<T: Trait> as Example {
        LinkedList get(fn linked_list): linked_map u32 => T::AccountId;
        LinkedCounter get(fn linked_counter): u32;

The method adding members is no different than the previously covered method, but the remove_member_linked method expresses swap and pop in a different way

fn remove_member_linked(origin, index: u32) -> Result {
    let _ = ensure_signed(origin)?;

    ensure!(<LinkedList<T>>::exists(index), "A member does not exist at this index");

    let head_index = <LinkedList<T>>::head().unwrap();
    // swap
    let member_to_remove = <LinkedList<T>>::take(index);
    let head_member = <LinkedList<T>>::take(head_index);
    <LinkedList<T>>::insert(index, head_member);
    <LinkedList<T>>::insert(head_index, member_to_remove);
    // pop


This implementation incurs some performance costs (vs solely using StorageMap and StorageValue) because linked_map heap allocates the entire map as an iterator in order to implement the enumerate method.