Glossary (alphabetical) of terms and lingo used in the Substrate and Polkadot codebases, as well as architecture.
Author (aka Block Author, Block Producer)
The node, actor or identity that is responsible for the creation of a block. Synonymous with "miner" or "coinbase" on legacy PoW chains.
Adaptive Quorum Biasing (AQB)
A means of specifying the quorum needed for a proposal to pass dependent upon voter turnout. Positive bias means requiring increasingly more aye votes than nay votes as there is lower turnout; negative (aka inverted) bias is the opposite (see the graphs). It avoids the need for strict quorums, which are arbitrary and bring about undesirable mechanics.
An internal codename for "Al's Finality Gadget", which is named after Alistair Stewart who invented it. See GRANDPA.
Used in the context of "module aggregation", this means combining analogous types from multiple runtime modules into a single
enum type with variants allowing each module's analogous type to be represented. Currently there are five such datatypes:
Log(an extensible header item)
Event(an indicator of some particular state-transition)
Call(a functor allowing a published function to be called with a set of arguments)
Origin(the provenance of a function call)
Metadata(information allowing introspection of the above)
Voting system where voter can vote for as many candidates as desired. The candidate with highest overall amount of votes wins. Notably:
- voting for all candidates is exactly equivalent to voting for none; and
- it is possible to vote "against" a single candidate by voting for all other candidates.
Authorities are the actors, keys or identities who, as a collective, manage consensus on the network.
AuthorityId can be used to identify them. In a PoS chain (such as one using the SRML's Staking module), authorities are determined through a token-weighted nomination/voting system.
We sometimes use "authorities" and "validators" to refer to what seems like the same thing. "Validators" is a broader term that can include other aspects of chain maintenance such as parachain validation. In general authorities are a (non-strict) subset of validators and many validators will be authorities.
Aura (aka "Authority Round")
Deterministic consensus protocol with Non-Instant Finality where block production is achieved by a rotating list of authorities that take turns issuing blocks over time, and where the majority of those online are honest authorities. See https://wiki.parity.io/Aura
A variant of Aura where authorities are shuffled randomly on each round, increasing security.
Extension of Aurand where block production involves validators competing over limited slots that move very quickly, where most slots are not populated, but with rare slot collisions.
A hybrid consensus scheme where Aurand is used for block production and short-term probabilistic-finality, with long-term absolute finality provided through GRANDPA.
Blind Assignment of Blockchain Extension (BABE)
Block authoring protocol similar to Aura where authorities are chosen with a verifiable random function (VRF) instead of a rotating list. Authorities are assigned a time slot in which they can select a chain and submit a new block for it. See http://research.web3.foundation/en/latest/polkadot/BABE/1-cycle/
A single item of a block chain (or parachain) that amalgamates a series of extrinsic data (the "body") together with some cryptographic information (the "header"). Blocks are arranged into a tree through parent pointers (implemented as cryptographic digests of the parent) and the tree is pruned into a list via a "fork-choice rule".
Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)
The ability of a distributed computer system to remain operational in the face of a proportion of defective nodes or actors. "Byzantine" refers to the ultimate level of defectiveness, with such nodes assumed to be actively malicious and coordinating rather than merely offline or buggy. Typically BFT systems remain functional with up to around one third of Byzantine nodes.
The loss of a system service due to a Byzantine Fault (i.e. components in the system fail and there is imperfect information about whether a component has failed) in systems that require consensus.
The process by which validators agree upon the next valid block to be added to the relay chain.
A means for forming consensus over what constitutes the (one true) canonical chain. In the context of Substrate, it refers to a set of trait implementations that dictate which of a number of input blocks form the chain.
An algorithm that is able to ensure that a set of actors who don't necessarily trust each other can come to consensus over some computation. Often mentioned alongside "safety" (the ability to ensure that any progression will eventually be agreed as having happened by all honest nodes) and "liveness" (the ability to keep making progress).
The signature scheme and hashing algorithm. These are used for:
- The blockchain: blocks must be hashed under some algorithm and reference their parent block's hash.
- State: the storage is encoded as a trie allowing a cryptographic reference to any given state of it, which uses a hashing algorithm.
- Consensus: authorities must often use digital signature schemes of some kind.
- Transaction authentication: in runtimes where transactions and accounts are used, accounts must be associated with some digital identity.
In the SRML, SR25519 and ED25519 is favoured over ECDSA/SECP256k1.
The council is one of the SRML governance primitives and is a body of delegates chosen from a number of approval votes for fixed terms. The council primarily serves as a body to optimise and check/balance the more inclusive referendum system. It has a number of powers:
- introduce referenda with a removed or inverted (when unanimous only) AQB; and
- cancel a referendum (when unanimous only); and
- give up their seat.
The means by which data relating to the blockchain is persisted between invocations of the node.
A Mnemonic phrase which is intentionally made public. All of the well-known development accounts (Alice, Bob, Charlie, Dave, Ferdie, and Eve) are generated from the same dev phrase. The dev phrase is:
bottom drive obey lake curtain smoke basket hold race lonely fit walk.
Many tools in the Substrate ecosystem, such as subkey, allow users to implicitly specify the dev phrase with by only specifying a derivation path such as
An extensible field of the block header that encodes information needed by header-only ("light") clients for chain synchronisation.
The execution of a function with a pre-defined set of arguments. In the context of the SRML, this refers specifically to the "runtime dispatch" system, a means of taking some pure data (the type is known as
Call by convention) and interpreting it in order to call a published function in a runtime module with some arguments. Such published functions take one additional parameter known as
origin allowing the function to securely determine the provenance of its execution.
Voting or otherwise backing multiple mutually-exclusive options within the consensus mechanism. This is considered fundamentally Byzantine behaviour.
One of a number of proofs of work, to be used in a Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm. Originally developed for, and used in, Ethereum by a team led by Tim Hughes.
A means of recording, for the benefit of the off-chain world, that some particular state transition has happened. Within the context of the SRML, events are one of a number of amalgamatable datatypes that each module defines individually and which are aggregated together into a single overall
enum type that can represent all module's types. Events are implemented through a transient set of storage items which are inspected immediately after a block has executed and reset during block-initialisation.
A means of executing a function call in a given runtime with a set of externalities. There are two executor implementations present in Substrate, Wasm and Native.
An Executor that uses the Wasm binary and a Wasm interpreter to execute the needed call. This tends to be slow but is guaranteed correct.
An Executor that uses the current inbuilt and natively compiled runtime to execute the needed call. If the code is compatible with the on-chain Wasm code, then it will be a lot faster and correct. Incorrect versioning will result in a consensus error.
A piece of data bundled into a block that expresses something from the "external" (i.e. off-chain) world. There are, broadly speaking, two types of extrinsic: transactions (which tend to be signed) and inherents (which don't).
Within the SRML Balances module, this is the minimum balance an account may have. Accounts cannot be created with a balance less than some minimal amount, and if an account's balance ever drops below amount, then it is removed entirely from the system.
As long as both the sender and receiver keep a balance of at least the existential deposit, transfers, including of very small amounts, will work intuitively. However, an attempt to transfer a small balance from one account to another can have slightly less-than-intuitive consequences when either the sender or receiver balances are very low.
If the amount transferred is less than the existential deposit and the destination account did not previously exist, then the transfer will "succeed" without actually creating and crediting the destination account; this appears to essentially just burn the transfer balance from the sender. If the transfer takes the sender to below the existential balance, then its account will be deleted. In this way, a transfer can even "successfully" result in the sender account being completely deleted, with the receiver account never being created.
It is up to middleware to ensure that end-users are made aware of and/or protected from these edge cases.
A part of consensus dealing with making a progression be irreversible. If a block is finalised, then any real-world repercussions can be effected. The consensus algorithm must guarantee that finalised blocks never need reverting.
One example of a work in progress provable finality gadget is being used in Polkadot: GRANDPA.
A node able to synchronise a block chain in a maximally secure manner through execution (and thus verification) of all logic. Compare to Light Client.
A JSON-based configuration file that can be used to determine a genesis block and which thus allows a single blockchain runtime to underpin multiple independent chains. Analogous to a "chain spec" file in Parity Ethereum, and, when used with Substrate Node, could be considered the third and highest-level usage paradigm of Substrate. The SRML provides a means of automatically generating the chain configuration logic from the modules and their persistent storage items.
GRANDPA (GHOST-based Recursive ANcestor Deriving Prefix Agreement), also previously known as SHAFT (SHared Ancestry Finality Tool), and originally known as AfG, is a finality gadget for blockchains, implemented in Rust. The formal specification is published at https://github.com/w3f/consensus/blob/master/pdf/grandpa.pdf.
Pieces of primarily cryptographic information that summarise a block. This information is used by light-clients to get a minimally-secure but very efficient synchronisation of the chain.
Instant-finality consensus algorithm with asynchronous "safety" and asynchronous "liveness" if tweaked. Originally slated as one of a number of directions that Polkadot might explore, but unlikely to be used now.
Hybrid Consensus Protocol
Split blockchain consensus into Block Production and a Finality Gadget. This allows chain growth speed to be as fast as in probabilistic "safety" consensus such as Ouroboros or Aurand but with same level of security guarantees as in Instant-Finality Consensus Protocols. See the first implementation in Rust, and the GRANDPA article.
A non-probabilistic consensus protocol that gives a guarantee of finality immediately upon block production, for example Tendermint and Rhododendron. These tend to be PBFT based and thus very expensive in terms of communication requirements.
A standard to call functions on a remote system using a JSON protocol. For Substrate, this is implemented through the Parity JSONRPC crate.
JSON-RPC Core Crate
Allows creation of JSON-RPC server handler, with supported methods registered. Exposes the Substrate Core via different types of Transport Protocols (i.e. WS, HTTP, TCP, IPC)
JSON-RPC Macros Crate
Allows simplifying in code the creation process of the JSON-RPC server through creating a Rust Trait that is annotated with RPC method names, so you can just implement the methods names
JSON-RPC Proxy Crate
Expose a simple server such as TCP from binaries, with another binary in front to serve as a proxy that will expose all other Transport Protocols, and process incoming RPC calls before reaching an upstream server, making it possible to implement Caching Middleware (saves having to go all the way to the node), Permissioning Middleware, load balancing between node instances, or moving account management to the proxy which processes the signed transaction. This provides an alternative to embedding the whole JSON-RPC in each project and all the configuration options for each server.
JSON-RPC PubSub Crate
Custom (though conventional) extension that is useful for Dapp developers. It allows "subscriptions" so that the server sends notifications to the client automatically (instead of having to call and poll a remote procedure manually all the time) but only with Transport Protocols that support persistent connection between client and server (i.e. WS, TCP, IPC)
A subsystem in Substrate for managing keys for the purpose of producing new blocks.
Information capture allowing external code to introspect runtime data structures. Includes comprehensive descriptions of the dispatch functions, events and storage items for each module in the runtime.
Nominated Proof-of-Stake (NPoS)
A means of determining a set of validators (and thus authorities) from a number of accounts willing to commit their stake to the proper (non-Byzantine) functioning of one or more authoring/validator nodes. This was originally proposed in the Polkadot paper and phrases a set of staked nominations as a constraint optimisation problem to eventually give a maximally staked set of validators each with a number of supporting nominators lending their stake. Slashing and rewards are done in a pro-rata manner.
OpenAPI Specification 3 (OAS3), which was formally referred to as a Swagger API Specification, is the specification used to author a Swagger File in either JSON or YAML format that may be used to generate API Reference documentation.
The provenance of a dispatched function call into the runtime. Can be customised (e.g. the Council "Motion" origin), but there are two special "built-in"s:
- Root: system level origin, assumed to be omnipotent;
- Signed: transaction origin, includes the account identifier of the signer;
Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (pBFT)
An original method to address the Byzantine Generals Problem. This allows for a system tolerant to Byzantine behaviour from up to one third of its participants with an
O(2N**2) communications overhead per node.
In a probabilistic finality based chain (e.g. Bitcoin), network participants rely on some probability p that a proposed block B will remain in the canonical chain indefinitely, with p approaching 1 as further blocks are produced on top of the block B.
A piece of data that can be used to prove that a particular block is finalised. Potentially very large unless signature aggregation is used.
Some consensus mechanisms aim for provable finality, whereby all blocks are guaranteed to be the canonical block for that chain upon block inclusion. Provable finality is desirable in cases such as when light clients do not have the full chain state, or when communicating with other chains, where interchain data is not ubiquitously distributed. See: GRANDPA
An Instant-Finality BFT consensus algorithm, one of a number of adaptions of PBFT for the blockchain. Others include Stellar's consensus algorithm and Tendermint. See the Rhododendron crate.
The block execution logic of a blockchain, i.e. the state transition function. In Substrate, this is stored on-chain in an implementation-neutral, machine-executable format as a WebAssembly binary. Other systems tend to express it only in human-readable format (e.g. Ethereum) or not at all (e.g. Bitcoin).
SHAFT (SHared Ancestry Finality Tool). See GRANDPA.
Democratic system with one-vote-per-token, rather than one-vote-per-head.
The data that can be drawn upon by, and that persists between, the executions of sequential blocks. State is stored in a "Trie", a cryptographic immutable data-structure that makes incremental digests very efficient. In Substrate, this trie is exposed to the runtime as a simple key/value map where both keys and values can be arbitrary byte arrays.
SRML (Substrate Runtime Module Library)
An extensible, generic, configurable and modular system for constructing runtimes and sharing reusable components of them. Broadly speaking, this corresponds to the second usage paradigm of Substrate, higher-level than using Substrate Core, but lower-level than simply running Substrate Node with a custom configuration.
STF (State Transition Function)
The logic of a blockchain that determines how the state changes when any given block is executed. In Substrate, this is essentially equivalent to the Runtime.
Within the SRML, storage items are a means of providing type-safe persistent data for the runtime, achieved with a compiler macro, the
parity-codec crate and the State API. All storage items must have a type for which the
parity-codec::Codec trait is implemented, and, if they have a corresponding JSON Genesis Configuration entry, then also the
A framework and toolkit for building and deploying upgradable, modular and efficient blockchains. There are three usage paradigms in increasing levels of functionality and opinionation: Core, SRML and Node.
The lowest level of the three Substrate usage paradigms, this is a minimalist/purist blockchain building framework that contains essential functionality at the lowest level including consensus, block production, chain synchronisation, I/O for JSON-RPC, runtime, network synchronisation, database backend, telemetry, sandboxing, and versioning.
Substrate Execution Environment
The runtime environment under which WebAssembly code runs in order to execute blocks.
A type of Extrinsic that includes a signature, and all valid instances cost the signer some amount of tokens when included on-chain. Because validity can be determined efficiently, transactions can be gossipped on the network with reasonable safety against DoS attacks, much as with Bitcoin and Ethereum.
A definable period, expressed as a range of block numbers, where a transaction may validly be included in a block. Eras are a backstop against transaction replay attacks in the case that an account is reaped and its (replay-protecting) nonce is reset to zero. Eras are efficiently expressible in transactions and cost only two bytes.
A collection of transactions that are not yet included in blocks but have been determined to be valid.
Tagged Transaction Pool
A "generic" transaction pool implementation allowing the runtime to specify whether a given transaction is valid, how it should be prioritised and how it relates to other transactions in terms of dependency and mutual exclusivity. It is designed to be easily extensible and general enough to have both UTXO and account-based transaction modules be trivially expressible.
Trie (Patricia Merkle Tree)
An immutable cryptographic data-structure typically used to express maps or sets of items where:
- a cryptographic digest of the dataset is needed; and/or
- it is cheap to recompute the digest with incremental changes to the dataset even when it is very large; and/or
- a concise proof that the dataset contains some item/pair (or lacks it) is needed.
A semi-trusted (or untrusted but well-incentivised) actor that helps maintain the network. In Substrate, validators broadly correspond to the authorities running the consensus system. In Polkadot, validators also manage other duties such as guaranteeing data availability and validating parachain candidate blocks.
An execution architecture based upon a virtual machine that allows for the efficient, platform neutral expression of deterministic machine-executable logic. Wasm is used across the Web platform and well-tooled and easily compiled from Rust.